Grid Emission Factors

The Grid Emission Factor (GEF) indicates the amount of CO2 avoided if a specific intervention is made either through the introduction of a renewable energy project to a grid or through the introduction of an energy saving project in the grid. It also represents the quantity of CO2 emitted by a power system during a year. The GEF is expressed via three factors, viz., Operating Margin, Build Margin and Combined Margin. 'Margin' refers to the happenings of renewable energy based power or an energy saving project.

The Operating Margin (OM) is a concept which includes all power plants which can have reduced outputs due to a project. It specifically excludes 'low cost, must run' power plants, implying that with or without the project, such generation will continue.

The Build Margin (BM) is a concept which foretells the happenings of a generation system in future, during the crediting period of a project, considering the recent additions to a generation system. The BM attempts to capture the future trend of the power generation mix. For instance, the addition of the coal power plant to the grid was captured in the BM calculation for 2011, hence there is an increase in the BM for that particular year.

The Combined Margin (CM) is a weighted average of OM and BM and is commonly known as the Grid Emission Factor. The OM, BM and CM are required for the assessment of CO2 emission reductions for projects claiming carbon credits under UNFCCC guidelines. Please refer http://cdm.unfccc.int/EB/index.html for more details.

The Grid Emission Factors for 2008 - 2011 were calculated using the Methodological Tool in EB 63 Report, Annex 19""Tool to calculate the emission factor for an electricity system" (Version 02.2.1). It is downloadable below. EB 63

The Grid Emission Factor for 2012 was calculated using the Methodological Tool in EB 70, Annex 22 ""Tool to calculate the emission factor for an electricity system" (Version 03.0.0). It is downloadable below. EB 70

The Grid Emission Factors for 2013 and 2014 were calculated using the Methodological Tool in EB 75, Annex 15""Tool to calculate the emission factor for an electricity system" (Version 04.0). It is downloadable below. EB 75